Source:https://today.oregonstate.edu/news/addressing-research-gaps-could-help-development-disability-inclusive-workplaces Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 11 2018Filling key gaps in the research and understanding of the treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace could help improve employee success on the job and develop more disability-inclusive workplaces, a new review of disability research has shown.People with disabilities make up roughly 15 percent of the world’s population but much of the existing research on employment for people with disabilities focuses on employment status, with less attention paid to quality of employment and other context that may influence the work experience of a person with disabilities, said David Baldridge, a professor of management at Oregon State University.”A lot of good work has been done, but the body of knowledge is still very piece-meal,” said Baldridge, who teaches in OSU’s College of Business and is an author of the study. “There are so many different potentially disabling conditions and work contexts that it is difficult to obtain data and generalize from one condition to the next.”The findings were published recently in the journal Human Resource Management. The lead author is Joy Beatty of the University of Michigan – Dearborn. Co-authors are Stephan Boehm of the University of St. Gallen, Mukta Kulkarni of the Indian Institute of Management -Bangalore, and Adrienne Colella of Tulane University.Beatty, Baldridge and their co-authors reviewed 88 research studies on the treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace and identified a number of gaps in the research that could help support the development of more inclusive workplaces and improve work opportunities for people with disabilities.Among the gaps: Clear definitions of disability. Researchers often use the term ‘person with disability’ differently and are sometimes unclear as to which group or groups their findings are applicable. Revisiting the meaning of career success. While success is often linked to promotions, people with disabilities may instead decline promotions or seek job duty modifications, employment security, work-life balance, etc. Adopting new ways to accurately measure career success can improve understanding of inclusive human resources policies. Over-reliance on limited existing data. Data on people with disabilities in the workplace can be difficult to obtain, so the available data is limited, leading to over-reliance on a few large government data sources. Lack of national context in current research, with a disproportionate focus on U.S. populations. The experience of a person with disabilities in the United States is likely to be different than that of a person living in China or India, but much of the existing research is focused on the U.S. Disability overshadows other aspects of a person’s identity. Deeper examination of individual differences and identities outside the disability itself is needed. Related StoriesTAU’s new Translational Medical Research Center acquires MILabs’ VECTor PET/SPECT/CTOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchSchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds research”Employers may treat disability as a ‘master status,’ overshadowing other aspects of identity that contribute to diversity,” Beatty said. “Disability identities coexist with other identities, creating a tapestry of gender, age, race, sexual orientation and religious affiliation. Recognizing this tapestry and incorporating a more complex model of identity supports the development of more inclusive organizations.”As people live longer and work later in life, the proportion of people living with a disability is expected to grow exponentially, making disability employment issues relevant to a much larger group of workers and employers, Baldridge said.”As work becomes more specialized, one issue for consideration should be to focus on what people can do and not what they can’t do,” he said. “Gains in specialized technology can help increase the impact of a person’s ability or reduce the impact of their disability.”Baldridge is already putting findings from this study into action. He’s currently working on a project that examines employee disability through lenses of isolation and integration to see if working in one condition has consequences for an employee’s career. He’s also looking at the connections between disability, education level and earnings to see how those three factors might relate.”That’s an example of going beyond just a person’s employment status and looking more at the quality of their employment,” he said.
Source:https://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/new-view-on-the-mechanisms-of-how-the-brain-works Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 29 2019After a series of studies, researchers at Lund University in Sweden, together with colleagues in Italy, have shown that not only one part, but most parts of the brain can be involved in processing the signals that arise from touch. The results open the way for a new approach to how the brain’s network of neurons processes information, and thereby the mechanisms by which the brain works.The researchers conducted in-depth analyses of how touch signals are transferred and processed in neurons of various parts of the brain and the latest studies have been published in Cell Reports and Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. The experiments were conducted on anesthetized rats.”We immediately realized that our findings deviated strongly from the accepted view that different parts of the brain are responsible for different specific functions”, says Henrik Jörntell, one of the researchers behind the study.The studies shed new light on how the brain processes signals about our experiences of the surrounding world.”According to a prevailing view of the brain, known as functional localization, the brain works like a set of switches: different parts of the brain are responsible for different functions. This theory is certainly easy to comprehend, but when we measure the activity levels in individual neurons, we get a different picture, which indicates that functions are in fact processed more globally by the whole brain”, says Henrik Jörntell.Knowledge of how the brain manages information down to the individual neuron level is important to understand how neurological diseases occur, as they often comprise a disruption in the transfer of information between neurons.The imprint of touch signals in the brainThe researchers used methods that enabled them to observe very precisely which touch signals were sent between various neurons in the brain’s network. Among other things, they generated touch signals through a finger prosthesis with synthetic skin sensitivity, a method which enabled them to send exactly the same signals in each experiment. Thanks to this new approach, the researchers were able to analyze how the touch signals were processed by individual neurons in various parts of the brain with a significantly higher resolution than was previously possible.Related StoriesWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskMercy Medical Center adds O-arm imaging system to improve spinal surgery resultsResearchers measure EEG-based brain responses for non-speech and speech sounds in children”The experiments showed that all parts of the brain we investigated were involved and processed the signals generated by touch, and that the differences in information between different neurons mean that they complement one another to create a rich picture, or perception”, says Henrik Jörntell, brain researcher at Lund University.One neuron, several functions and a single networkThe researchers’ explanatory model is that all information processing is conducted as though through a single network and that the neurons in the brain, in practice, have partially different functions from one situation to another.”Each individual neuron is involved in a large number of different functions. As it is closely tied to a very large number of other neurons, the function that one neuron has in a specific situation will be determined by what the other neurons with which it is connected are doing at the time”, says Henrik Jörntell.He thinks this could explain the previously baffling observation that minor brain injuries or loss of neurons often go unnoticed.”The brain’s network learns to solve the same tasks by creating partly new collaborative groups of neurons, which enables it to bypass damaged neural tissue with no measurable loss of function. I believe that these findings could mean a new world of promising treatment potential for many different conditions. As there is often an extensive latent brain capacity left in cases of major brain injury, one can imagine that a greater recovery could be achieved if we could teach the brain to form new collaborative groups of neurons”, says Henrik Jörntell.
Source:http://www.ucr.edu/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 10 2019A stroke treatment developed by researcher Byron Ford at the University of California, Riverside, has moved toward clinical trials.The treatment focuses on neuregulins, a family of naturally occurring proteins that has shown promise for treating stroke, a leading cause of death in the United States and the major cause of long-term disability.During stroke, blood supply to the brain is interrupted. Most often, an artery to the brain gets blocked by a clot or a blood vessel ruptures. With no blood — and therefore no oxygen or nutrients — reaching the brain, cells in the brain begin to die locally, at the “core,” within a couple of hours. Subsequently, the core cells burst and release their components into the surrounding area, which then experiences a dramatic inflammatory response. This area, called the ischemic penumbra, dies over the course of several hours or days. Neuregulin-1, or NRG-1, one of four proteins in the neuregulin family, prevents this inflammation and cell death.”Cells in the core die by getting overexcited and exploding,” said Ford, a professor of biomedical sciences at the UCR School of Medicine, whose company, Brain-Gen, has patents for the use of NRG-1 to treat stroke. “Cells in the ischemic penumbra die by committing suicide. This happens, we believe, to prevent the whole brain from dying. An analogy: imagine a grenade is flung into a crowded theater, and a few people throw themselves on the grenade. They will die, but due to their sacrifice, others may very likely be spared.”Brain-Gen is co-owned by his brother Gregory Ford, a neuroscientist and the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Fort Valley State University in Georgia. Byron Ford explained that Zensun Biotech, a Shanghai-based Chinese company with which Brain-Gen has recently partnered, has patents to use a particular form of neuregulin, called Neucardin, to treat heart failure. Zensun Biotech does not have patents, however, for Neucardin’s use in clinical trials for stroke. Brain-Gen tested Neucardin and found it works for stroke in animal models.The two companies have signed an agreement to collaboratively move Neucardin toward clinical trials for stroke and to form a joint venture. The new company plans to approach the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to expand the use of Neucardin for stroke and to explore the possibility of securing funding from the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, with the aim of joining its StrokeNet clinical trials program.Related StoriesStudy explores role of iron in over 900 diseasesNew approach to post-stroke rehabilitation proposedUse of statins linked to reduction of mortality risk in dementia patientsInvolving more than 200 hospitals in the country, StrokeNet conducts small and large clinical trials and research studies to advance acute stroke treatment, stroke prevention, and recovery and rehabilitation following a stroke.”To our advantage, Zensun has already completed phase I and phase II clinical trials for heart failure and shown that Neucardin is safe and improves heart function in patients,” Ford said. “A stroke is like a heart attack in the brain. If the FDA says we can cross-reference Zensun’s data for approval to treat stroke, this would greatly expedite matters as we apply to become part of the NIH StrokeNet.”Each year, nearly 800,000 Americans have a stroke, of which about 140,000 die. The “Stroke Belt,” an area in the southeastern United States and Mississippi Valley, has the highest rate of stroke mortality in the country.Currently, the only FDA-approved drug to treat stroke is tissue plasminogen activator, or t-PA, which melts the clot. It has no effect on brain cells, however, and can be used only within a three-hour window from the witnessed time of stroke onset, beyond which t-PA damages blood vessels and causes bleeding. Further, only 3%-5% of stroke patients qualify for t-PA due to the limited time window and access to primary stroke centers. In contrast, Neucardin can be given to a patient more than 12 hours after a stroke and has been shown to be safe in patients.Ford proposes that Neucardin be administered intravascularly to the patient along with t-PA to offer protection to the brain and potentially block t-PA’s negative effects that lead to bleeding in the brain.”Neucardin can possibly be delivered in an ambulatory setting due to its relatively safe profile,” he said. “It can be given to the patient even before it has been determined if a stroke took place. It can also be delivered days following stroke to stimulate repair and regeneration in the brain. All this significantly boosts our hope for treating stroke.”
Nearly 15,000 flights could be held up by the problem, acording to Eurocontrol, the Brussels-based agency in charge of managing Europe’s skies. Several of the EU’s biggest airports, including Amsterdam’s Schiphol, warned of problems and advised passengers to check on their flights because of the computer breakdown.”Today 29,500 flights were expected in the European network. Approximately half of those could have some delay as a result of the system outage,” a Eurocontrol statement said.”We very much regret the inconvenience caused to passengers across Europe today, however safety is our number 1 priority at all times. We are working hard to ensure the network returns to normal operations over the coming hours,” it later tweeted.Eurocontrol—which covers 41 countries including all 28 EU nations plus others in Europe including Ukraine, Turkey and Norway—said it hoped to have the system back up and running by late Tuesday.It blamed a “failure of the Enhanced Tactical Flow Management System”, which tracks and manages traffic demand across the continent, and said it had activated contingency plans which reduced European flight capacity by 10 percent.The cause had been identified, it said, without saying what it was.Eurocontrol added that flight plans from before 1026 GMT were “lost” and asked airlines to refile them.”We have never had anything like this before,” a Eurocontrol spokesman told AFP.’Vicious circle’The breakdown comes a day after the Easter holidays when many travellers are on the move around Europe, and as commuters across France faced disruption from a massive rail strike in protest at President Emmanuel Macron’s reforms.Several airports across the continent warned of problems, with Amsterdam’s Schiphol saying that the “system failure” at Eurocontrol could have “possible consequences” for departures.Brussels airport said departures were limited to 10 flights an hour. The Belgian airport manages 650 flights a day, according to its website.Helsinki, Prague, Copenhagen and Dublin airports also warned of delays.Frankfurt airport, Germany’s biggest and one of the busiest in Europe, said the effects were “limited” but added that planes from Brussels “might not be able to arrive”.”We have delays at departures, but this is nothing dramatic. Punctuality is currently under 80 percent,” a spokesperson of Fraport, which runs the airport, told AFP.German air traffic control operator Deutsche Flugsicherung warned of a possible “vicious circle” of delays.”Since 2 pm this system, the network manager, has failed in Brussels. This is the system, the department, that controls the flight schedules,” a spokeswoman said.”You work from experience, but things are going slower. But of course, a vicious circle can arise. If nobody takes off, nobody can land. We don’t know how long it’ll take,” the spokeswoman added.The main airports in Paris and Rome, and the organisation that runs all of Spain’s airports, said, however, they had no initial reports of disruption. Several of the EU’s biggest airports, including Amsterdam’s Schiphol, warned of problems because of the computer breakdown © 2018 AFP European air travellers faced mass disruption on Tuesday with up to half of all flights delayed after the system that manages air traffic for the continent broke down. Dutch defer plan to expand second Amsterdam airport Explore further Citation: Half of European flights face delays after computer failure (2018, April 3) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-european-flights-failure.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Nissan has long resisted pressures from Renault for a full merger, and Japanese media reported that Renault had likely hoped its lobbying power would be boosted, if it had merged with Fiat Chrysler.But the collapse of the talks with Fiat Chrysler might mean Renault would merely focus even more on a merger with Nissan, the Asahi newspaper said Friday.Nissan Chief Executive Hiroto Saikawa told reporters late Thursday that he wanted time to find out what the Fiat Chrylser-Renault merger might mean for Nissan, calling it “moving to the next stage.” He reiterated his reservations about a full merger with Renault, stressing Nissan must turn its business around first.Fiat Chrysler cited “political conditions in France” for withdrawing its offer to Renault.The French government said it had placed four conditions on the deal, and getting support from Nissan was the condition that wasn’t met.The other conditions were to preserve French jobs and factories, respect the governance balance between Renault and Fiat Chrysler, and ensure participation in an electric battery initiative with Germany.Michelle Krebs, executive analyst at Autotrader in Detroit, acknowledged the proposed giant alliance had been complex.”No one ever expected it to be a cake walk to negotiate or execute,” she said. “The only surprise is that it ended so soon.” While Nissan Motor Co. had a weaker bargaining position from the start, with its financial performance crumbling after the arrest last year of its star executive Carlos Ghosn, it still had as its crown jewel the technology of electric vehicles and hybrids that Fiat Chrysler wanted.The board of Renault, meeting Thursday, didn’t get as far as voting on the proposal, announced last week, which would have created the world’s third biggest automaker, trailing only Volkswagen AG of Germany and Japan’s Toyota Motor Corp.When the French government, Renault’s top shareholder with a 15% stake, asked for more time to convince Nissan, Fiat Chrysler Chairman John Elkann abruptly withdrew the offer.Although analysts say reviving the talks isn’t out of the question, they say trust among the players appears to have been broken.”The other companies made the mistake of underestimating Nissan’s determination to say, ‘No,’ ” said Katsuya Takuechi, senior analyst at Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities in Tokyo.Renault and Fiat Chrylser highlighted possible synergies that come from sharing parts and research costs as the benefits of the merger. But what Fiat Chrysler lacks and really wanted was what’s called in the industry “electrification technology,” Takeuchi said.With emissions regulations getting stricter around the world, having such technology is crucial.Yokohama-based Nissan makes the world’s best-selling electric car Leaf.Its Note, an electric car equipped with a small gas engine to charge its battery, was Japan’s No. 1 selling car for the fiscal year through March, the first time in 50 years that a Nissan model beat Toyota and Honda Motor Co. for that title.Nissan is also a leader in autonomous-driving technology, another area all the automakers are trying to innovate. In this Nov. 19, 2018, file photo, Nissan Motor Co. President and Chief Executive Officer Hiroto Saikawa speaks during a press conference at Nissan Motor Co. Global Headquarter in Yokohama, near Tokyo. Nissan wasn’t consulted on the proposed merger between its alliance partner Renault and Fiat Chrysler, but the Japanese automaker’s reluctance to go along may have helped bring about the surprise collapse of the talks. Saikawa told reporters late Thursday, June 6, 2019 he wanted time to learn what the Fiat Chrylser-Renault merger might mean for Nissan. (AP Photo/Shuji Kajiyama, File) © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. “Although Nissan had no say, its cautionary stance on the merger ended up being very meaningful,” Takeuchi said. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further In this Sept. 6, 2017, file photo, Nissan’s new Leaf electric vehicle is unveiled during the world premiere in Chiba , near Tokyo. Nissan wasn’t consulted on the proposed merger between its alliance partner Renault and Fiat Chrysler, but the Japanese automaker’s reluctance may have helped bring about the surprise collapse of the talks. Analysts say Nissan has the technology of electric vehicles and hybrids that Fiat Chrysler wanted, and others had underestimated Nissan’s reluctance. (AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko, File) Citation: No-say Nissan had tech that drove Fiat Chrysler-Renault idea (2019, June 7) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-no-say-nissan-tech-drove-fiat.html Renault tries to reassure partner Nissan on Fiat plans Nissan wasn’t consulted on the proposed merger between its alliance partner Renault and Fiat Chrysler, but the Japanese automaker’s reluctance to go along may have helped bring about the surprise collapse of the talks.
Citation: Florida city pays $600,000 ransom to save computer records (2019, June 19) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-florida-city-ransom.html © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. The Riviera Beach City Council voted unanimously this week to pay the hackers’ demands, believing the Palm Beach suburb had no choice if it wanted to retrieve its records, which the hackers encrypted. The council already voted to spend almost $1 million on new computers and hardware after hackers captured the city’s system three weeks ago.The hackers apparently got into the city’s system when an employee clicked on an email link that allowed them to upload malware. Along with the encrypted records, the city had numerous problems including a disabled email system, employees and vendors being paid by check rather than direct deposit and 911 dispatchers being unable to enter calls into the computer. The city says there was no delay in response time.Spokeswoman Rose Anne Brown said Wednesday that the city of 35,000 residents has been working with outside security consultants, who recommended the ransom be paid. She conceded there are no guarantees that once the hackers received the money they will release the records. The payment is being covered by insurance. The FBI on its website says it “doesn’t support” paying off hackers, but Riviera Beach isn’t alone: many government agencies and businesses do.”We are relying on their (the consultants’) advice,” she said. The hackers demanded payment in the cryptocurrency bitcoin. While it is possible to trace bitcoins as they are spent, the owners of the accounts aren’t necessarily known, making it a favored payment method in ransomware attacks.Numerous governments and businesses have been hit in the United States and worldwide in recent years. Baltimore refused to pay hackers $76,000 after an attack last month. The U.S. government indicted two Iranians last year for allegedly unleashing more than 200 ransomware attacks, including against the cities of Atlanta and Newark, New Jersey. The men, who have not been arrested, received more than $6 million in payments and caused $30 million in damage to computer systems, federal prosecutors have said.The federal government last year also accused a North Korean programmer with the “WannaCry” attack that infected government, bank, factory and hospital computers in 150 countries. He is also believed to have stolen $81 million from a Bangladesh bank. He also remains in his home country.The FBI had no immediate comment Wednesday on the Riviera Beach attack.Tom Holt, a Michigan State University criminal justice professor, said hackers often attack common and known vulnerabilities in computer systems. He said organizations’ technology managers need to examine their systems for such flaws and teach their employees not to open suspicious email or click suspect links. The FBI says businesses also need to back up their data regularly on secure computers.Holt said most attacks originate outside the U.S., which makes them difficult to police. He said many victims wind up like Riviera Beach: They pay their attacker because it is likely the only way to retrieve lost data.”They might not pay the initial ransom that was suggested, but they may work with a third-party provider to negotiate the ransom down,” Holt said.He said in almost all cases, the attackers decrypt the computers after payment, allowing the victims to retrieve their data. He said the WannaCry attacks were an exception—the hackers took the money but often didn’t release the data.Some private WannaCry decryption attempts were successful. Explore further Credit: CC0 Public Domain A Florida city agreed to pay $600,000 in ransom to hackers who took over its computer system, the latest in thousands of attacks worldwide aimed at extorting money from governments and businesses. Two Iranian hackers charged in US ransomware scheme This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
SHARE SHARE EMAIL PM-Kisan: A small step in the right direction COMMENT With time running out, banks concerned over smooth rollout of PM Kisan scheme About 80 per cent of farmers in Maharashtra are eligible for the ₹6,000 a year relief under the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sanman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) announced in the interim budget. Out of the 1.5 crore farmers in the State, about 1.2 crore fall under the small and marginal group and are eligible for the relief. The State government will receive ₹7,200 crore from the Centre in the coming calendar year.These details emerged out of a review of PM-KISAN programme during the weekly Cabinet meeting. State Agriculture Minister Chandrakant Patil apprised the Cabinet of the programme, a senior government official said. PM-KISAN is an assured income programme for small and marginal farmers, whose landholding is less than two hectares. PM-KISAN is fully sponsored by the Centre and it will entail an annual expenditure of ₹75,000 crore. The official said a committee headed by the State Chief Secretary had already started the process of identifying the beneficiaries. A large number of people who have less than two hectares of land but are government servants, pensioners having more ₹10,000 pension per year, serving and former MLAs, doctors and those who have paid income tax in the last fiscal are not eligible for the relief. Based on the 2015-16 agriculture census data, Konkan region has 84.50 per cent small and marginal farmers. In Nashik, the number is 78 per cent; Pune 84 per cent; Aurangabad 79.50 per cent; Amravati 73 per cent; and Nagpur 76 per cent regions, the numbers are 79.50, 73 and 76 per cent, respectively. A ‘feel-good’ Budget for an election year file photo COMMENTS SHARE agriculture February 08, 2019 Now, a co‘w’er for Maharashtra’s gaus Maharashtra Published on RELATED
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