Six pier and harbour communities received a boost on Monday as €172,500 of government funding to upgrade and repair the areas across Donegal was announced. Darney Pier, Curransport, Inch Pier, Creevy Pier, Leharden Newbridge and Rutland Aids to Navigation will all benefit from the funding.“The works will play a valuable role in bringing these locations up to a higher standard and developing them as amenities for fishing and leisure at sea,” Minister McHugh said. The Local Authority funding programme forms part of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marines’ 2019 Fishery Harbour and Coastal Infrastructure Development Programme.The Department co-funds up to 75% of the total cost of approved projects with the Local Authority providing the balance.Mr McHugh, Minister for Education and Skills, said: “These piers and harbours play a key part in supporting rural and coastal communities. The construction work will help sustain local contractors and the finished works will be vital for the development of fishing and marine activities.“With this work, we are supporting local business, helping sustainability and opening the door to more tourism and leisure options on the Wild Atlantic Way.” The following locations have been approved by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine funded Local Authority works 2019 and can be seen in more detail below. Darney Pier, Bruckless – Re-grade and re-deck the slipway, safety signage and railings – €30,000Curransport – Funding for repairs on shore for the ferry service, safety signage and railings – €45,000Rutland Aids to Navigation – Provide 1 Starboard Hand marker and light to mark submerged rock outcrops in the channel at Rutland and indicate safe access to Burtonport – €22,500Inch Pier – Repairs to structure, signage and railings – €12,000Leharden Newbridge – Improve berthing facilities, safety signage and railings – €45,000Creevy Pier – Repairs on pier deck, signage, toe rails and railings – €18,000€170K funding boost for six pier and harbour communities was last modified: April 1st, 2019 by Shaun KeenanShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:harbourspiers
African Floralush, which trades as Iluba, is headed up by South African entrepreneur JJ Viljoen and his son, Fanie. The flower head and stem are preserved separately. Once preserved, trained staff carefully join the two parts again, using stitching and glue. Iluba is creating both direct and downstream employment opportunities for South Africans. African Floralush buys roses from contract growers at a certain size and stage of development. Most of their customers prefer traditional colours, but some market segments enjoy enhanced bloom colours. Iluba flowers are treated with natural dyes to reinforce their colour and ensure that they remain crisp and beautiful for months. (Images: Iluba Long-life Fresh Flowers) MEDIA CONTACTS • Fanie Viljoen Export manager Iluba Long-life Fresh Flowers +27 11 662 2225 RELATED ARTICLES • Floral wealth in caring hands • Six decades to survey East Africa’s flora • EC to get first botanical garden • Teaching people to work with natureWilma den HartighInnovative technology to preserve and extend the shelf life of fresh flowers, developed by the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), is helping to boost job creation, develop skills and establish new market opportunities for South Africa’s flower industry.People have tried for centuries to preserve the beauty of flowers, but now local research at the NMMU’s Institute for Chemical Technology, InnoVenton, has perfected a technique that makes it possible to produce a natural alternative to artificial flowers.A Gauteng-based company, African Floralush, which trades as Iluba, is using the patented treatment process to preserve fresh roses and foliage.The company is headed up by South African entrepreneur JJ Viljoen and his son, Fanie.“Innovation is what this business is about. It is new and that is what excites me,” says JJ Viljoen. “It is a new floral sub-sector in South Africa.”Commercialising academic researchThe company’s Iluba roses are fast gaining local and international popularity, and show how academic research combined with business acumen can make a positive impact on society.The university is a shareholder in both the patent-holding company and in the manufacturing company, African Floralush, which licenses the technology. The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) provided the bulk of the investment to start the business.Viljoen says it was a rose grower from Addo in the Eastern Cape, Tinie Maske, who first approached the university with her idea to preserve roses. She experimented with various preservation methods in her kitchen at home, and believed that she was onto something with great promise.The NMMU took the idea, conducted further research, development and extensive testing, to develop the technique which is used today. Maske, InnoVenton’s director Professor Ben Zeelie, and Dr Shawn Gouws also of InnoVenton, can be credited as the inventors of the long-lasting rose.Viljoen says one of the biggest challenges of the new business was to refine the laboratory-scale technology to be suitable for processing at an industrial capacity.Jaci Barnett, director of the NMMU’s technology transfer office, explains that this is not unusual if new technology is commercialised.“The business has taken a long time to get off the ground,” Barnett says. “But it is gratifying to see one of our technologies really making a difference to people’s lives by providing employment.”The business has been in operation for just over three years, but through trial and error and hard work their efforts are paying off.The long-lasting roses are now distributed throughout 30 countries including Australia, Japan, Saudi Arabia, the US and Canada, European countries and South Africa for use in the gifting and décor market.Sales of the roses are mostly to wholesalers for onward distribution in retail stores and directly to the hospitality industry. Unlike freshly-cut arrangements, Iluba roses don’t have to be replaced and this is why the product is popular with home decorators, hotels, ocean liners and long-distance train operators.Research and development is underway to determine if the same techniques could be applied to preserve proteas and other varieties of flowers.As no cold chain is required, the company can also help to establish emerging growers in rural areas to participate in the Iluba supply chain.Providing employmentIluba is creating both direct and downstream employment opportunities for South Africans. The business employs 90 workers, most of whom were previously unskilled, and Viljoen says they expect to employ a total of 120 people next year.More than 30 new and independent business enterprises were established in 2011 alone as a result of Iluba’s activities. They include enterprises that use the products to create new value-added décor and gifting floral products, as well as new specialist retail and distributor outlets.“There is so much that one can do with our product that one cannot do with either fresh flowers or artificial flowers,” Viljoen says. “We expect a new industry will soon emerge around preserved long-life flowers.”Viljoen also encourages staff to think innovatively about the production process. “We make a point of telling our staff members to come up with solutions for challenges that emerge in production,” Viljoen says. “One of our best employees has no formal education but is head of quality control.”What is the secret?Creating a single long-life rose is a highly technical process as workers have only a few hours, while the roses are absolutely fresh, within which to complete the preservation process.African Floralush buys roses from contract growers at a certain size and stage of development. The first step is to remove the flower head from the stem, as each part is preserved separately. Once preserved, trained staff carefully join the two parts again, using stitching and glue.Dr Shawn Gouws of InnoVenton explains that the water in the cells and tissues of the flowers and foliage are replaced with natural eco-friendly preservatives. This allows the flowers and foliage to last for six months without water.Viljoen adds that the chemicals and preservatives are similar to those commonly used in the commercial manufacture of cosmetics and processed food.The technique makes it possible to add natural perfumes to strengthen the fragrance of the roses, and the colours can also be adjusted.Fanie Viljoen says although 80% of their customers prefer traditional colours, some market segments enjoy enhanced bloom colours, including deep brown, black, blue and purple.The natural pigment in fresh cut flowers fades and becomes brown with time, but Iluba flowers are treated with natural dyes to reinforce their colour and ensure that they remain crisp and beautiful for months.Iluba flowers also have a very low carbon footprint, as they do not need refrigeration and can be shipped as opposed to air freighted, offering major environmental benefits.Changing demand for flowersAccording to JJ Viljoen there is a growing market for long-life flowers, particularly as the cost of replacing fresh flowers has become so expensive.As a result of the tough economic climate, consumers are spending less on luxury items such as flowers, which has caused the fresh cut flower market to decline locally and globally in recent years.However, in South Africa alone, the import of artificial flowers has grown by an average of 38% per year.“More consumers are buying these flowers as the quality is improving so much that it is often difficult to distinguish them from fresh flowers,” Viljoen explains. “Long-life flowers are positioned somewhere in between.”He says market research has shown that despite the move away from fresh cut flowers and more consumer interest in artificial flowers, the market would still prefer natural flowers, if they offered a much longer vase life.Awards to inspireAfrican Floralush has also won a few awards for its unique product and business concept.Recently the company was named the winner in the small business category for innovation in the 2012 IDC Business Partner Awards.The awards celebrate IDC-funded businesses that have contributed to commercially sustainable industrial development in job creation, innovation and sustainability.“Awards serve as recognition for all our tribulations,” Viljoen says. “It gives the business credibility.”
A new tax bracket for the super rich, a sugar tax and an increase in the tax threshold for lower income earners: Pravin Gordhan’s 2017 budget was about bringing the marginalised into the economy. Here, we present to you a visual summary of what the budget’s numbers that matter most to you. For more on the budget, check out:VIDEO: Budget 2017- word on the streetBudget 2017: Radical economic transformation for inclusive growthBudget 2017: Where does the money come from? How will it be spent?Full text: South Africa’s 2017 budget speechWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material
An Uttar Pradesh Minister’s son-in-law is one of the 10 persons accused of plotting the Rae Bareli vehicle collision in which the victim of the alleged Unnao gang rape was left critically injured. Arun Singh, the Nawabganj block pramukh and son-in-law of Ranvendra Pratap Singh, alias Dhunni, a Minister of State holding the Agriculture, Agriculture Education and Agriculture Research portfolios, is listed as accused no. 7 in the FIR lodged by the uncle of the survivor of the alleged rape. She is battling for her life in a hospital in Lucknow with multiple fractures, head and chest injuries. Mr. Arun Singh confirmed to The Hindu that he was in fact the same person named in the FIR. The FIR lists him as one of the persons accused of intimidating the family of the victim. The complainant, her uncle, said he and his family had faced repeated threats from Kuldeep Singh Sengar, MLA, and his men and were being intimidated to change their statements in court or compromise with the MLA or face dire consequences. ‘Falsely implicated’Along with the rest, Mr. Arun Singh faces charges of murder, attempt to murder, criminal conspiracy and criminal intimidation. Asserting that he was being falsely implicated due to “personal and political rivalry” with a former block pramukh in Nawabganj, Awadesh Singh, he alleged that his rival shared a link with the jailed uncle of the victim. Mr. Arun Singh had defeated Maya Singh, Mr. Awadesh Singh’s wife, to win the post. Mr. Arun Singh said he was a litigant in the 2006 murder case of a Dalit block pramukh, Ram Naresh Nirmal, in which Mr. Awadesh Singh is an accused. “Awadesh Singh is a history-sheeter with over 40 criminal cases and my political opponent,” he said. “He is using the uncle as a shield… he feels if he falsely implicates me or sends me to jail, then he will be able to manage his case,” Mr. Arun Singh said. In the FIR relating to the collision, the uncle mentions Mr. Awadesh Singh as being among the people who would come to visit him in jail. The police have so far traced the owner of the truck to Fatehpur, which shares borders with Unnao and Rae Bareli.Mr. Arun Singh downplayed his political links with his father-in-law. “I have no political connection with him. He is my father-in-law but not my political guardian,” said Mr. Arun Singh, who is considered close to Mr. Sengar and Unnao BJP MP Sachhidanand Hari, alias Sakshi Maharaj. Mr. Arun Singh’s name also surfaced last year in the assault case of the survivor’s father, who died in custody in suspicious circumstances. He was questioned but not formally charged. He says he is innocent. “I have never seen the uncle by face. I have never seen the victim and I don’t even know where their house is,” he said, adding he had not met Sengar in over six months. Mr. Arun Singh said he was ready to undergo a narco test and cooperate with any agency–the CBI has taken over the collision case and even lodged an FIR, which includes him–in the investigation. The uncle of the survivor was on Wednesday granted a day’s parole to attend the cremation of his wife and relative, who died in the Rae Bareli collision while they were on their way to meet him in jail. Awadesh Singh was not available for comment.
With questions being raised over the cleanliness in the Commonwealth Games Village, Union Cabinet Secretary K M Chandrasekhar tonight directed Delhi Government to take control of the maintenance of the complex which will house the athletes.The maintenance of the Games Village was under the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) which is under direct control of Union Urban Development Ministry.Highly-placed sources told PTI that Chandrasekhar directed the city government to take control of the maintenance and cleanliness of the Games Village from tomorrow following criticism by the Commonwealth Games Federation.They said the CWG Organising Committee will be the overall incharge of the Games Village but Delhi government will look after the issues of maintenance and cleanliness.Already 40 DANIPS (Delhi, Nicobar and Andaman Island Police Service) officers have been deployed in the Games Village and if required more officials will be put into service. Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit will visit the Village tomorrow to assess the ground situation.Cleanliness and maintenance of the Games Village had come under sharp criticism from foreign participants as well as Commonwealth Games Federation Chief Executive Mike Hooper who described the facility as “filthy and unimaginable”.Concerned over the unhygienic conditions at the Games Village, Commonwealth Games Federation chief Michael Fennell shot off a letter to Cabinet Secretary asking him to take immediate steps to fix the deficiencies in the residential zone of the Village, which he said has “shocked” advance parties from New Zealand, Canada, Scotland and Ireland.”The final preparations for the Games Village have been of concern to the CGF since viewing the residential zone along with a number of Commonwealth Games Associations advance parties on September 15,” Fennel said in a strongly-worded statement.advertisementBut the embarrassed organisers, while promising to sort out all the glitches within the deadline, came out with a bizarre defence that the issue of cleanliness was a matter of difference in perception.”For us and for you it is clean. But they (the foreign countries) have a different standard of cleanliness. It is a matter of difference in perception,” Organising Committee spokesperson Lalit Bhanot said.New Zealand Chef de Mission Dave Currie, who is camping in Delhi, threatened to pull out if the cleanliness issue of the residential zones where his country’s athletes will stay is not sorted out.”There are some realities, I guess, that if the village is not ready and athletes can’t come then obviously the implications of that are it is not going to happen. If the village isn’t ready, the athletes can’t arrive,” Currie said.”It’s not our decision. We’re not saying we’re not coming or the country’s not coming. What we’re saying is they’ve got a real challenge with the village and they need to take urgent attention to address it,” he added.
The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has been contemplating a three-member panel under former captain Anil Kumble to probe the team’s disastrous tour of England, which concluded last week.India got whitewashed in the Test series, followed by a one-off Twenty-20 match and finally in the ODI series. The board has received flak for poor planning as the reason for the team’s dismal performance.Sources said Kumble was likely to be entrusted with the task of reviewing the series and suggest ways for future. The spinning legend had given his preliminary views during the last working committee meeting.Kumble has been in the race to head the technical committee along with another former skipper Sourav Ganguly following the resignation of Sunil Gavaskar.
Every second of your video is a game to keep the viewer’s attention. If you spend 15 or more seconds on one scene, your audience may get bored and close out. Having quick scenes (perhaps 3-10 seconds each) stirs curiosity and increases the likelihood that the video will be watched all the way through. Avoid “inside baseball” when trying to be funny in your videos. You may think you are creating humorous content, but would outsiders appreciate it? Is it an inside company joke that others might not understand? Test your video on a few people outside your company before publishing! 2) Incorporate music. My favorite piece of advice regarding content creation is ” Inspired by a new “viral video” that I have been working on (to be launched next week!), here is a list of 10 video qualities that encourage others to share video content throughout blogs and social media sites. Webinar: How to Use Online Video for Inbound Marketing The first 5 seconds of your video determine whether the person will keep watching or not. Don’t make the mistake of having a long intro in order to “set the stage.” Jump right in and grab their attention before the viewers move on to something else. removed sound . has performed much better than What other qualities make a video viral? What are some of your favorite viral videos? to learn how to use online video to grow your business with inbound marketing. Elements that stimulate other senses (short of smell or taste) make your video much more engaging and entertaining. due to a record company’s copyright. 1) Do a parody/spoof of something familiar. This is a tough one for companies that create content as part of a marketing program. (Like us!) If you throw your logo everywhere and have a sales-related call-to-action, people will consider it a commercial and won’t want to pass it along. Our best advice is to find a balance that is subtle and creative. Can you ask your audience to do something that indirectly relates to your company? murder your darlings. Hint: Create your own music or use music under a Creative Commons license. Topics: Video Marketing 3) Make your video very short. ” You actually add more value if you make your content easy to consume! No matter how much awesome footage you may have, cut it down to the absolute minimum. Most people only have a few minutes or LESS to watch a video. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack 10) Remove as much “corporate friction” as possible. Though deviations to this tip exist, using upbeat music as a background or focus tends to grab the viewer’s attention and raise the excitement. In my experience, famous. It’s the humor of seeing something familiar in a new way. 7) Don’t get stuck on quality. How do you get started with YouTube, video podcasting, live streaming, or viral videos? 8) Be bigger than life. Download the free video webinar 9) Shock your viewer in first 5 seconds. 4) If you use music, keep it uptempo. faster music It would be a bummer if YouTube By playing off of something that everyone already knows–for example, a popular song, movie or a TV show–people will have a reference point to relate to your content. This made Al Yankovic Awesome video doesn’t need to be recorded on an expensive camera, in HD, or edited by a film editing pro. The value comes in the creativity of your ideas, not in the gloss. Flickr Credit: It’s not a specific equation to creating viral content; it’s more like a game of bingo. The more of the below qualities you have, the higher the chances that your video will win … and “go viral.” People love watching crazy things that they would never see in everyday life. Take risks and capture something remarkable on camera. Act silly, create ridiculous office scenes, or do amazing (but safe!) stunts. This is the same type of creativity that brought SNL to the top! 6) Be funny to people other than you. Originally published Jul 7, 2009 7:51:00 AM, updated October 20 2016 slow Scott Kinmartin 5) Edit your video into sharp, quick scenes.
Topics: Social Media Originally published Jan 13, 2010 2:54:00 PM, updated October 01 2019 Landing Pages According to New Media Age, Coke has decided to say goodbye to one-off-campaign-websites in favor of building its existing social media presence on YouTube and Facebook. This move is not surprising since the Coca-Cola company has already expressed the belief that their social media and SEO presence is a better homepage than even Coke.com. To me, their announcement to discontinue Coke-hosted campaign websites just further demonstrates their dedication to building out the social media communities that are already working for them. In the New Media Age article, Prinz Pinakatt, Coke’s interactive marketing manager for Europe explains why Coke has decided to cease building Coke-hosted pages for every campaign: “We would like to place our activities and brands where people are, rather than dragging them to our platform.”What’s interesting is while the major B2C appears to be consolidating their efforts, Coke’s biggest competitor in the soda space, Pepsi, had decided to forego its 23rd year of Super Bowl advertising in order to invest in a crowdsourcing community called The Pepsi Refresh Project. If I’m interpreting Coke’s new strategy correctly, the type of community Pepsi is building won’t be pursued in the future by Coke.com. Instead, Pinakatt says that they will either completely forgoe building a campaign website or simply create a landing page for that campaign with a call to subscribe to one of their existing social media communities. “In some cases some of our campaigns won’t need a coke.com-hosted site. In most cases these will still exist as it’s the most obvious destination for a consumer, but it might only be a page linking to YouTube encouraging people to join the community there.”For a B2C company like Coca-Cola, this move might be a smart one. Building a one-off website every single new campaign can be an expensive and slow process when you factor in build time and QA, then there’s the effort and man-power involved in up-keeping the community you have created. Right now Coca-cola is charged with managing and maintains over 7 different domains including MyCoke.com and Live Positively, so really they’re just consolidating their resources into one common goal – to build the Coco-Cola reach using social media and drive brand enthusiasm through those channels. For B2B companies, you may be wondering if Coke’s strategy could work for your business. At HubSpot, we’ve had success in creating several app-driven Grader websites like Website Grader. These Grader products generate a lot of leads for our sales team so it’s worth the investment to host and deliver them to our prospects, even if it requires a dedicated team of developers to monitor and manage them. I do commend Coke for dedicating their marketing team into using social media to build their reach and reinforce their brand. When you build a robust presence on the big social media sites (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube), you are essentially fishing where the fish are. However, the one thing that Coke is lacking from all of their websites is a powerful blog presence which I believe would strengthen the connection between their social media campaigns and their own domains.Do you think Coca-Cola made the right move? Are you investing more time in building your reach in social media this year? Tell us in the comments. Video: How to Use Social Media to Manage Your Company Brand Online Learn how to use social media to attract more customers.Download the free video and learn how to generate more business using social media. Branding Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack
. You can easily Now, weekly summary emails that are already sent to small businesses that use Yelp’s business tools (like the one pictured above) also This should also serve as a wakeup call for small businesses who aren’t already taking advantage of local business directories, review sites and mobile applications such as Yelp and Google Places ( Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack the inclusion of mobile activity tracking to its weekly summary for small businesses that use On-Demand Webinar: How to Use SEO & Social Search for Lead Generation How many people “checked in” to the business via the Yelp app Topics: include the following mobile activity information Join Mike Volpe, VP of Marketing at HubSpot for insights on how to generate leads with SEO and social search. ). People are increasingly using these tools to find and evaluate businesses like yours all the time. If you haven’t claimed your presence on these sites, you’re missing a huge opportunity to Yelp announced The new addition came after Yelp disclosed some interesting statistics a few weeks ago about Yelp use, which revealed that over 1 in 4 searches on Yelp are performed from Yelp’s iPhone application, and every five seconds, someone uses the Yelp app to call a local business. Pretty interesting, considering these stats were generated just from Yelp’s iPhone app, and Yelp also has applications for 4 other smart phones. Yelp presence Download the free, on-demand webinar now claim your Google Place here and ! How many people called the business from their Yelp app This week, get found online by local searchers Why This Matters for Marketers and Small Business Owners unlock your free business tools on Yelp here The availability of these mobile stats means marketers and small business owners now have access to more in-depth data regarding the impact of their formerly called Google Local How many people looked at the business’ page from their Yelp app So what are you waiting for? : . How many people generated directions to the business from their Yelp app Originally published Jun 30, 2010 3:15:00 PM, updated October 20 2016 . . As local search and mobile applications increases in popularity and usage, the ability to gain insight into how people are searching for local businesses using these types of search tools is becoming more and more valuable. Knowing this data can help small businesses make decisions on how best to take advantage of their local search presence. Local SEO Yelp’s free business tools
Google Alerts to give it a try. a real-time feature. – Using real-time search, users can limit real-time updates to a specific location near them or a location they select. Want to know what is the hottest topic in your city right now? Then set your location in Google real-time search. Google’s real-time search feature is currently in the process of being rolled out to everyone. Visit Google Updates – Do you want to get an email the second someone mentions your business on Twitter? Now you can. With the launch of real-time search, Google has made Real-Time Google Alerts Google’s real-time search provides users with a page of search results that automatically update as new updates are created that mention the user’s search terms from social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, and more. Included in real-time search are many new features: Look for Local Conversations History Conversation Viewing Google.com/realtime – Using the timeline at the top of the real-time page, users can scroll to a period of time and look at the updates and conversations for specific data and times using Originally published Aug 26, 2010 2:30:00 PM, updated October 20 2016 Google’s real-time search . How Does Google’s Real-Time Search Work? Search engines have been working at a rapid pace to improve their systems to handle and deliver results from social networks in real time. Today, the real-time search industry got a lot hotter. Google today turned on a new experiment feature that delivers search results on a keyword in real time. Marketing TakeawayWith the launch of real-time search, Google has reinforced the importance of social media for marketing. Businesses participating in social media will have a clear advantage in getting found online because of their automatic inclusion in real-time search results. Marketers now have a new tool to monitor online conversations about their business and understand which marketing events directly caused an increase in word-of-mouth buzz during a given time. Google real-time search is a huge boost for marketers not only in monitoring but also in demonstrating the value of social media to their business. Topics: To learn about some of the other important features and aspects of Google’s real-time search, check out this quick video from Google. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack