CO2 allowance auction set for September 25

first_imgGovernor says first RGGI auction date is set for Sept. 25CO2 allowance auctions will help drive innovation, produce cleaner energyMONTPELIER – Governor Jim Douglas has announced that Vermont and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative have released preliminary guidelines for the nation’s first-ever carbon credit auction on Sept. 25.The guidelines outline requirements and preparations bidders must follow to be ready to purchase their share of nearly 12.5 million carbon emission allowances at the first auction.”The stage is set for Vermont and nine other states to take unprecedented action and lead the nation on a path of economic and environmental security through reduced use of fossil fuels like oil,” Douglas said. “This is an important milestone as Vermonters struggle under the burden of the federal government’s failure to lead on fundamental energy and environmental issues.”The Sept. 25 auction is expected to include allowances from Vermont, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland and Rhode Island. Other RGGI states will offer allowances for sale in future auctions as they complete their necessary rule-making procedures.RGGI is the first program in the country to cap and then reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Participating states have agreed to stabilize CO2 emissions from 2009 to 2014, and then gradually reduce emissions beginning in 2015. Emissions from the power sector for RGGI states totals about 7 percent of the U.S. power sector emissions, according to the U.S. Energy Information Agency.The market-based mandatory program will cost-effectively reduce the pollution that is causing global warming while investing in efficient technology, Douglas said. “The result for Vermonters is the potential for new green jobs and cleaner energy.”The materials released today, online at www.rggi.org(link is external), provide a preview of auction applications and procedures for bidders participating in the first of two early auctions to be held this year.###last_img read more

Young African migrants undergo controversial bone age testing in France

first_imgEurope continues to grapple with the influx of illegal migrants. Authorities in France are now resorting to the use of the highly controversial testing procedure, known as bone age study to confirm minors.The method is legal in France but has been widely criticized by migrant advocates and doctors alike, who say the test is intrusive and unreliable. CCTV’s Susan Mwongeli reports. The plight of African migrants Related France plans to open centers in Libya to stem flow of migrants Migrants Crisis: More Migrants Arrive In Sicilylast_img read more

Manchester United rocked by Basel late show

first_imgUnited hit the woodwork twice in a dominant first half, but they were outplayed after the interval and could have few complaints about Lang’s dramatic winner.United remain in first place and a draw at home to CSKA Moscow — three points behind Mourinho’s men on nine and level with Basel — in their last fixture on December 5 would ensure their progress to the knockout stages on top of Group A.Basel are also in the hunt heading into their last group game against Benfica, in which they just need to equal CSKA’s result to qualify.Mourinho will be especially frustrated by the defeat because it means he cannot afford to rest players against CSKA, just days before the Manchester derby.Mourinho made seven changes from the team that beat Newcastle 4-1 at the weekend, with Argentine defender Marcos Rojo making his first appearance since a suffering cruciate ligament injury in April.Mourinho had expressed concern about the pitch at St Jakob-Park after it was replaced following heavy damage during Switzerland’s recent World Cup play-off with Northern Ireland.However nited didn’t seem bothered when they pieced together a sweeping move that almost brought an early opening goal.Paul Pogba sliced through the Basel defence and found Romelu Lukaku, whose shot on the turn was well saved by Tomas Vaclik.Moments later, the visitors went even closer when Marouane Fellaini’s header was cleared off the line by Manuel Akanji.Fellaini threatened again with another header that fizzed wide from Daley Blind’s free-kick.– Penned back –United were dominating possession without applying the finishing touch and Fellaini maintained that frustrating trend when the Belgian hit the post with a close-range header from Anthony Martial’s cross.Martial was denied by Vaclik at the end of a surging run before Rojo rattled the bar from long-range.Having been penned back in the first half, Basel almost snatched the lead after the interval when Serey Die drilled just wide.Suddenly unable to find any rhythm, United rode their luck again as Renato Steffen’s powerful effort was narrowly off-target.Mourinho sent on Nemanja Matic and Marcus Rashford, but United didn’t respond and Lang nearly made them pay by crashing a header against the bar.That escape was the signal for United striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic to come on in the 74th minute, for the second appearance since his return from a serious knee injury.Die tried to steal the spotlight from the Swede with a 25-yard strike that drew a good stop from Sergio Romero.Even Ibrahimovic couldn’t help United stem the tide and Basel’s pressure was finally rewarded in the 89th minute.With United appealing in vain for offside, Raoul Petretta’s measured pass found Lang and he tapped in at the far post to leave Mourinho cursing.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Paul Pogba captained Manchester United against BaselBASEL, Switzerland, Nov 22 – Manchester United were forced to wait to book a place in the Champions League last 16 as Michael Lang’s last-gasp strike gave Basel a shock 1-0 win St Jakob-Park on Wednesday.Jose Mourinho’s side were moments away from securing top spot in Group A when Lang pounced on sloppy defending to steal the points for second-placed Basel a minute before the end.last_img read more

New Mexicos American Indian population crashed 100 years after Europeans arrived

first_img Email The new study suggests the latter, at least in the Jemez province in northern New Mexico. At one time, the region was full of villages and fieldhouses, says Matthew Liebmann, an archaeologist at Harvard University and lead author of the paper. “You can’t walk around on top of these mesas for more than a couple hundred yards without coming across an archaeological site.” Although few of these sites have been excavated, they have been well preserved because they lie within a national forest.So Liebmann and his team just needed a way to map the ruins without the trees getting in the way. That’s exactly what LiDAR allowed them to do: By sending pulses of laser light down from an airplane, the team soon had a map of the Jemez province, sans trees. Then, they converted the volume of rubble visible today into an approximate number of rooms that must have existed in each of the large villages. From this, they estimated how many people lived there just before the first Spanish explorers arrived in the area in 1541: between 5000 and 8000. That made the province “probably one of the more densely occupied areas of the American Southwest on the eve of European contact,” Liebmann says.To figure out when the Jemez villages were abandoned, Liebmann and his colleagues counted the rings of trees now growing on the landscape. When a tree is growing, say, inside what was once a house, “the age of that tree would give you at least a minimum time since the structure was last occupied,” says Tom Swetnam, a dendrochronologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson who worked with Liebmann. Many trees now growing in and around the Jemez villages sprouted in the 1630s and 1640s, suggesting that the communities were abandoned around that time, the team reports today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.That’s about 100 years after the first contact with Europeans, but it coincides with the establishment of Catholic missions, the first permanent European settlements in the region. That suggests the area’s colonization triggered the depopulation, says Nevle, not something that happened before, such as occasional contact with Spanish explorers. The exact details remain unclear, but perhaps “it was something about bringing so many people together in the mission system that provided the critical mass for diseases to move across the population,” Nevle says.Colonial documents mention plagues sweeping through Jemez in the 17th century, which supports the idea that a large part of the depopulation was due to disease. The few survivors eventually retrenched in one village near the main mission, which may have also contributed to the abandonment of other settlements. Four decades later, by the early 1680s, there were fewer than 850 Pueblo people left in Jemez province, LiDAR data from the remaining village and Spanish colonial documents indicate. That’s a loss of 87% of the original population. The native peoples’ descendants, members of the Pueblo of Jemez, still live there today.The tree samples also revealed scars from forest fires, which allowed Swetnam to see how the fire ecology of the Jemez province changed after the population crash. When the villages were still occupied, “people were using every stick of wood for firewood,” Swetnam says, so forest fires didn’t have much fuel to work with. Before 1620, extensive fires burned through Jemez about once every 17 years, he calculated; after 1620, that increased to every 11 years, presumably because people were no longer clearing the underbrush and chopping down trees for construction.What’s more, “there’s no evidence that any of these villages that we’re studying had any catastrophic fires go through them,” Swetnam says. That is in stark contrast to today, as forest fires are becoming both more frequent and more intense in the Jemez region. “The role of ancient Pueblo people in culling or thinning understory provides a really intriguing model for how we might decrease the number of catastrophic fires,” Lekson says. Liebmann says he is already working with the Pueblo of Jemez to help them apply his study’s lessons about sustainably controlling fire. Click to view the privacy policy. 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Country In the 1500s, the ponderosa pine forests of Jemez province in New Mexico were home to between 5000 and 8000 people. But after Europeans arrived in the area, the native population plummeted by more than 80%, probably because of a series of devastating epidemics. A new study suggests the crash took place 100 years after the first contact with Europeans. It also suggests that the sudden drop in the local population had dramatic ecological effects, including an increase in forest fires.The authors of the paper used a “terrific combination” of dendro-ecology—which uses the rings of trees to determine their ages and reconstruct past environments—fire ecology, and LiDAR, a remote sensing technique based on laser light, says Steve Lekson, a Southwestern archaeologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who wasn’t involved in the study. “It’s such an amazing approach,” agrees Richard Nevle, an environmental scientist at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, who has studied the ecological effects of the American Indian population crash. “No one has really pulled all these different pieces together so well before. It raises the bar.”American Indian populations plummeted after the arrival of Europeans in the New World, largely because of the spread of smallpox, typhus, measles, and other infectious diseases. But archaeologists and historians have debated the exact timing and severity of the decline. Did diseases race out ahead of colonial settlement, decimating communities that hadn’t even met Europeans? Or did it take more sustained contact between the two populations to spark epidemics?last_img read more