Spectacularly-Preserved Fossil Shrimp Look Modern

first_imgMore Fossil Evidence Again Fails to Show Evolution; Instead, It Shows No Evolutionby Jerry Bergman, PhDMost evidence used to document evolution is based on fossil bones and teeth. When a new fossil trove of shrimp was discovered recently, amazing detail of the creatures’ external morphology was revealed, giving researchers a close picture of what the living animal looked like eons ago. Darwin complained about the poor fossil record as one of the most serious problems with his theory, and assumed, as more fossils are discovered, it would vindicate his theory of evolution. He said,the number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed on the earth, [must] be truly enormous. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.”[1]The find reviewed here is important because, as the peer-reviewed article explained:Cumaceans are a group of small, extant peracarid crustaceans (1–35 mm long) consisting of eight families and over 1900 species worldwide, commonly found in marine sediments from the intertidal zone to deep-sea trenches. Surprisingly, despite their modern diversity, abundance and global distribution, almost nothing is known about the cumacean fossil record and thus their evolutionary history. This is intriguing because cumaceans are largely benthic crustaceans that live in the sediment–water interface, mostly associated with fine sands and muds, which have a high fossilization potential.[2]The statement “almost nothing is known about the cumacean fossil record and thus their evolutionary history” means scientists believe they evolved, but have no good fossil evidence to document what they know (actually believe) has occurred. Has this new important find remedied this major problem? It certainly seems it should have.The FossilsExquisite details of hundreds of shrimp were found. Photo: Javier LuqueThe “discovery of hundreds of finely preserved … fossils in South America” has allowed “paleontologists to discern eyes, antennae, mouth parts and even fine hairs, and create a 3-D reconstruction of what the creatures might have looked like while alive.”[3] What we see is a creature claimed to be 90 million Darwin years old and, when examined in detail, has shown no evidence of change in the 90-million Darwin years it was alleged to have lived in the past.  The detail was so great that the team was able to create a very realistic 3-D movie of the creature which is available on-line.[4]The discovery was important because “shrimp are small, delicate crustaceans with one of the poorest fossil records among marine arthropods—which is shocking as they are abundant today and live in soft sediments with good fossilization potential.”[5] The research even further found details of the gut, mouth parts, thoracic legs, pleopods [swimming legs used for brooding eggs, and catching food which these arms sweep the food into their mouth], uropods [posterior appendages that typically function in locomotion] bearing setae [both mechano- and chemosensory hair-like appendages present on the mouthparts of crustaceans], antennal flagella and even small eyes bearing ommatidia.”[6] The discovery of hundreds of finely-preserved fossils in South America has revealed these and more details of the oldest direct ancestor of the comma shrimp, dubbed “comma” because their shape, which resembles a comma. The species is very common today.Common shrimp, Crangon crangon (Wikipedia). Shrimp are complex crustaceans with numerous organ systems. The fossil shrimp look the same as modern shrimp despite 200 million alleged years.No Change at AllWhat Yale paleontologist Javier Luque, lead author of the study, learned from these enormous details is, “We are amazed by how similar Eobodotria muisca is to today’s species” of shrimp.[7] Furthermore, “the similarity between Eobodotria muisca and its modern relatives suggests that the rates of external anatomical changes over millions of years in this group was low.”[8] The word low does not really describe the difference. Nonexistent is a better word. The authors were unable to note a single difference between their fossils and the living shrimp in spite of the fact that the level of detail preserved was enormous. If differences existed, the authors did not identify them, and they would have if they found such to support what they openly stated was the goal of their research, to document evolution.Most of the Eobodotria muisca fossils found were part of large aggregations of males. We know they were males due to their large antennae that they use for smelling, and their flappy tail appendages used for swimming—both structures that females lack. The researchers concluded that males gathered in the water column for the purpose of searching for females.[9] The hundreds of adult males likely died suddenly in an unexpected water column while the creatures were swarming during mating season. The victims that fell through the water sustained very little, if any, water damage.Lying for DarwinMost of the articles about the shrimp claim that the discovery fills in a huge fossil gap, but not one article mentions where that gap is that it supposedly fills.[10] Their claim implies that some very ancient pre-shrimp existed and the new find lived and died between this ancient pre-shrimp and a modern shrimp. One article stated “One of the most incomplete fossil records of marine life is being filled in by a new find by a team of paleontologists from the University of Alberta, Yale University, and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,”[11] yet never mentions where the big hole is that the fossil supposedly fills.One other claim is that a shrimp, called the tadpole shrimp, which “may be the most ancient animal species on Earth is alive and well in Britain.” According to researchers from the University of Glasgow, the “Fossil finds show that the shrimp is virtually the same today as it was 200 million years ago, when the first dinosaurs evolved” [12] No evolution at all is seen!The name tadpole shrimp comes from where the shrimp live, namely in temporary water pools. When the water dries up, all of the adults die, but leave behind eggs that are able to remain dormant for years until the wet conditions return. Amazingly, these shrimp contain both male and female reproductive systems. Consequently, only one egg needs to survive to regenerate the entire population.[13]The shrimp fossil record, as described by the authors of the paper reviewed here, is very poor:The oldest alleged cumacean-like fossils known are a handful of incomplete and poorly preserved specimens from the Permo–Carboniferous of the USA, the Permian of Germany and the Middle Jurassic of France However, none of the Palaeozoic fossils show the diagnostic features of true cumaceans, so their stem-group cumacean affinities are still unclear. The only fossil known assignable to the crown-group Cumacea is Palaeocuma hessi from the Callovian (approx. 165 Ma) of France. Yet, the type material is poorly preserved and represented by …  few specimens.[14]Consequently, the new find could not fit into any hole between a pre-shrimp or less-evolved shrimp and a modern shrimp. There was no hole to fill because no clear evidence of an earlier shrimp exists.SummaryThe statement “almost nothing is known about the cumacean fossil record and thus their evolutionary history” is no longer true. We now have a good fossil record, what the authors describe as the “first unambiguous fossil record,” of shrimp. But instead of documenting evolution, it supports the opposite worldview: creation, and stasis ever since. From what we know from the find, the first known shrimp was a complete, functional shrimp almost identical to those swimming in the waters today.A major reason given by paleontologists for the supposed lack of evolutionary evidence in the fossil record is fossilization problems, especially of anatomical minutiae such as mouth details, thoracic legs, antennae, fine hairs of the antennal flagella, and compound eyes with ommatidia. All of these details have been unambiguously identified by seasoned paleontologists involved in the fossil find reviewed here, and the researchers were unable to identify a single structure they concluded provided evidence of evolution. They believe their fossil is 90 million years old, but it shows no evidence of evolution. Instead, it shows rather good evidence of stasis (no evolution) in the enormously long time span they believe it lived. These  “Exceptionally preserved fossils provide a crucial glimpse into the Earth’s past” and the message it shouts is clear: No evolution has occurred![15]References[1] Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species. London, UK: John Murray, p. 280.[2] Luque, Javier and Sarah Gerken. 2019. “Exceptional Preservation of Comma Shrimp From a mid-Cretaceous Lagerstätte of Colombia, and the Origins of Crown Cumacea,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286(1916): 1-8, December 4.[3] Lyle, Andrew. 2019. Tiny well-preserved fossils discovered in South America reveal oldest known relative of species that still thrives today. 90-million-year-old ‘comma’ shrimp fossil sheds new light on modern species. https://www.folio.ca/90-million-year-old-comma-shrimp-fossil-sheds-new-light-on-modern-species/[4] See https://scitechdaily.com/paleontologists-discover-odd-shrimp-that-fills-hole-in-fossil-record/[5] Lyle, 2019. Ref. 3.[6] Javier and Gerken, 2019. Ref. 2.[7] Shelton, Jim. 2019. World’s oldest comma shrimp was way ahead of the curve. https://phys.org/news/2019-11-world-oldest-comma-shrimp.html.[8] Shelton, 2019. Ref. 7. Emphasis added.[9] Shelton, 2019. Ref. 7.[10]  Paleontologists Discover Odd Shrimp That Fills Hole in Fossil Record. https://scitechdaily.com/paleontologists-discover-odd-shrimp-that-fills-hole-in-fossil-record/[11] Ref 10.[12] Shrimp ‘is world’s oldest surviving animal’ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/wildlife/7916880/Shrimp-is-worlds-oldest-surviving-animal.html[13] Ridley, Kimberly. Extreme Survivors: Animals That Time Forgot. Thomaston, ME: Tilbury House Publishers, p. 12.[14] Luque and Gerken, 2019. Ref. 2.[15] Lyle, 2019. Ref. 3.Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology for over 40 years at several colleges and universities including Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 226 times, 14 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Meet the nominees: Cape Town International Film Market Festival “Most Patriotic South African Arts Ambassador” Award

first_imgBrand South Africa has partnered with the Cape Town International Film Market Festival (CTIFMF), to strategically uncap the creative industries as an imperative contributor to the Nation Brand image and competitiveness. As a result, the “Most Patriotic South African Arts Ambassador” award category was created by Brand South Africa to promote Nation Brand pride and patriotism.A call to entry was put out, and the public had an opportunity to nominate young South African creatives doing amazing work in their respective fields. After a thorough adjudication process, the following three nominees were selected:Trevor NoahTrevor Noah is a South African comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. He is known for hosting The Daily Show, an American satirical news program on Comedy Central. Born in Johannesburg, Noah began his career as a comedian, presenter, and actor in his native South Africa in 2002. Trevor established a thriving stand-up comedy career in South Africa before he moved to the USA to expand his career opportunities. Zwai MbulaZwai Mbula is a South African marimba and percussion player who combines traditional African music with modern pop, Afro Jazz and World music. Zwai grew up in Guguletu Township in Cape Town and was surrounded by marimba music. He took up the marimba at age 12 when he joined a group at the local community centre. The group won the Shell Road to Fame Talent Show in South Africa in 1996.Zwai studied at The College of Music at The University of Cape Town and has played in a variety of bands across a range of different styles of music. For eight years, Zwai was a member of the very successful marimba band, Abakhaya who represented South Africa music at the FIFA World Cup of ’98. In 2010, Zwai released an album showcasing his musical heritage and conveying the spirit of South Afrian music. It features some of Cape Town’s top jazz musicians, including Allou April, Spencer Mbadu, Robbie Jansen, Nyamie Mbula and Lush Nqikashe. Russel HlongwaneRussel Hlongwane is an arts administrator and creative industries consultant. His area of interest is in heritage; tradition and modernity in South Africa and Africa as a broader frame. He is strongly engaged in film, music, and design with an interest in pedagogy and the mechanics of the creative economy.Based in Durban, Russel works with a broad range of arts organisations through his arts advocacy portfolio. These include Arterial Network, the Performing Arts Network of South Africa, KZNSA Gallery and ASSITEJ. Russel co-founded, Onexus Music Business, a music business education company that teaches emerging musicians about the ever-changing music industry. He recently established a lean consultancy, Cultural & Creative Commerce, a formal entity that allows his creative production and administrative based work to coalesce and exist in a complementary manner.last_img read more

Localeaks: A Drop-Box for Anonymous Tips to 1400 U.S. Newspapers

first_imgTags:#New Media#news#web Related Posts Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…center_img audrey watters Although the mission of WikiLeaks is to “open governments,” it’s done quite a lot to make us think about how to open journalism as well. We’ve seen a number of new whistleblower sites crop up – OpenLeaks and Rospil, for example – as well as major news organizations – Al Jazeera, and perhaps even The New York Times – investigate ways to facilitate more whistle-blowing and leaking.But why wait for local newspapers to roll out their own anonymous tips pipeline when a project from CUNY Graduate School‘s Entrepreneurial Journalism program has designed just that thing.Using Localeaks, you can send an anonymous tip, including a file, to over 1400 newspapers in the U.S. through one online form. Choose your state. Choose the newspaper. Enter your information and submit your anonymous tip.Each drop-box consists of a secure web connection and a form that encrypts both files and the text submitted (then destroys the originals) as well as removes identifying metadata from documents. The system also makes every effort to leave no traceable remnants from the transaction, such as identifiable session cookies on the client side or logging of any IP addresses on the server side.Once a file is submitted, the newspaper will receive an email, alerting them to the tip. The newspaper then needs to reply that it’s interested. Then a temporary secure file transfer is established. This last step isn’t automated yet, according to Matthew Terenzio, Web Development Director at The Hour Publishing Co and one of the members of this project. The best way to do so, he says, would be to have the encryption software – the open source GnuPG in this case – set up on the newspaper’s end. “It is unlikely that most would have it yet,” says Terenzio, who says he’s working on helping some newspapers set up their own drop-boxes to avoid this step.But an increasing familiarity with encryption might just be in more newsroom’s future, particularly if the number of “local leaks” continue. After all, as Terenzio notes, “the people formerly called the audience and the sources, are setting the pace of change, not the news organizations.” 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more

Bengal to draw up vision plan

first_imgThe West Bengal Cabinet on Wednesday decided to draw up a ‘Vision 10 and Vision 20’ plan for better performance and development in various fields in the next 10 to 20 years, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee said.“We will plan for 10 years and 20 years because if there is no proper planning, then there will be situations like the recent collapse of bridges. The Finance Department with the help of the Statistics and Planning Department will work on this,” she added.last_img

Embargoed, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq exists in solitary confinement

first_imgIt is tempting to look at Iraq as a hindi movie script gone horribly over the top. Saddam Hussein is Amrish Puri.Dharmendra defeated but did not quite demolish him, so now Sunny Deol has sworn to finish the task – George Bush followed by George W. Bush.Behind such black humour,It is tempting to look at Iraq as a hindi movie script gone horribly over the top. Saddam Hussein is Amrish Puri.Dharmendra defeated but did not quite demolish him, so now Sunny Deol has sworn to finish the task – George Bush followed by George W. Bush.Behind such black humour and the equally facile plans of Pentagon war strategists, there lies a country of 25 million, a human drama encapsulating every possible emotion. Iraq’s society is more liberal and secular than any other in the Middle East; Iraq’s polity is built around terrorism-the terrorising of a people by their self-proclaimed emperor.Iraq used to be the progressive face of Arab Islam, the stabilising, moderating influence in a region of religious extremes. The energy of its educated, white-collar middle class was every neighbour’s envy. Today, only a shell survives.An entire value system has collapsed. Iraq was once throbbing; now it is just tired, very tired. Humiliation in the Gulf War, 1991, has been compounded by a decade of economic sanctions. It has taken the luxury of consumerism out of the average Iraqi’s life; indeed, it has consumed the life out of the average Iraqi.Iraqis fear what American bombs may do to their children but the zeal with which they rallied around their patriarch through the war with Iran in the 1980s and then in 1991 has gone. So has the pride and swagger of the legatees of Mesopotamia, of Sumer, of Babylon. All that they are left with is nostalgia; and hope.advertisementI DICTATE, WE DO, THEY DRIVEA couple celebrate their wedding at Baghdad’s state-run Ishtar Hotel – it was once the Sheraton – amid the ubiquitous presence of the “Wise Man of the Arabs”; Sardar Cars, the city’s biggest auto dealer, still sells 50-60 cars a month, from Mercs old and new to pick-up trucks. Only a buccaneer elite, enriched by the parallel economy the embargo has spawned, can afford to buy.COLD COMFORT, HOT MOVESOil is aplenty, water is scarce. An Iraqi improvises his bathtub into a roadside “shop” to sell fellow Baghdadis what they covet most-safe drinking water. The concerns at a city party are altogether different and a throwback to the time when the Iraqi capital’s nightlife still roared.GETTING ALONG GAMELYIf a cursory survey of poster shops be proof, David Beckham is Iraq’s favourite foreigner. His sport itself is a craze and this repaired-football salesman appears confident of good business. His compatriots in a Baghdad cafe wait for their country’s luck to change.WORSHIP, HERO WORSHIPSaddam’s regime is dominated by Sunnis but over 60 per cent of Iraqis are Shias. In Karbala, Shias from across the world congregate at the mausoleums of Imam Hussain.Abbas, part of the Prophet’s family. Meanwhile in Baghdad, a motorist dresses up his Volkswagen Beetle for his leader.last_img read more